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The Indus Civilization (circa 2600 - 1800 B.C.) was the culmination of a regionalized farming village society based on the cultivation of wheat and barley that had already been established for several millennia. Some of these ancient ways of life continue to this day. The Indus Civilization thus provided the foundation for modern civilization in both India and Pakistan.

The Indus River flows across a huge plain, created and continually renewed by the flow of the river. The river carries melted snow from the Himalayas, accumulating and depositing alluvial soil that is the basis of life as well as a symbol of fertility, and serves as a highway connecting the villages and the cities.
On this alluvial plain, people planted and harvested wheat and barley, bred cattle and buffalo and founded a civilization.

The Indus River plain is overgrown with acacia and tamarisk trees. The river meanders through this plain and forms wetlands which support an abundance of living things. People must have watched such workings of nature with affection and sometimes with a sense of awe.

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