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The first farming village in South Asia known to us today was established at Mehrgarh at the foot of the Balochistan hills around 7000 B.C. This early farming village culture gradually developed into regional village cultures that spread throughout the hills. By circa 3000 B.C. many settlements had appeared on the Indus River plain as well. This laid the foundation for the civilization that was to follow.

Balochistan hills

The first farming tools

Figurines and fertility


Domestic vessels

Mehrgarh is the earliest known farming settlement in South Asia (established circa 7000 B.C.), the first of several villages to appear among the hills of Balochistan along the western edge of the Indus plain. Stone sickles found at Mehrgarh provide definite evidence of wheat cultivation. The people cultivated wheat and barley and raised sheep, goats and cattle, all traditions that paved the way to civilization. Soon after, they began making painted pottery, ornaments and terracotta figurines representing both humans and animals.

Kot Diji and Amri

Decorating vessels

Village implements

Settlements began to appear on the Indus plain at around 3500 B.C. This laid the foundation for the Indus Civilization. The use of seals indicates active trade, while models of yokes for cattle and sophisticated copper/bronze implements attest to a well-developed agricultural society. Motifs on pottery such as humans wearing headdresses of buffalo horns appear to be early manifestations of common beliefs that continue in the later Indus Civilization.

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